T-28 Participation in the North Dakota Tracer Experiment (NDTE)


The T-28 research aircraft participated in the North Dakota Tracer Experiment, centered at Bismarck, ND, from June 21 - July30, 1993. The focus of investigation included the study of transport, dispersion, and entrainment; ice initiation and evolution; storm structure; atmospheric chemistry; and cloud electrification in High Plains convective storms.

The primary role of the T-28 was to penetrate upper regions of convective clouds following the dispersal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), radar chaff, and/or fluorescent beads in lower regions of the cloud. Instrumentation on-board recorded SF6 levels, as well as collecting data on the hydrometeor spectrum from micrometer-sized cloud droplets to centimeter-sized hailstones. The standard package of instruments provided for the determination of temperature, vertical wind, electric fields, water content, etc., while providing aircraft tracking via a Global Positioning System unit. During NDTE the T-28 also carried a PMS 2D-C optical probe.

Research Flights


Summary of T-28 participation in the North Dakota Tracer Experiment (1993) (Report SDSMT/IAS/R-94/02)

Data Access

NDTE 1993 Data Access

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