References from NAME Science and Implementation Plan



Adams, D. K. and A. C. Comrie, 1997: The North American monsoon. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2197-2213.

Adang, T. C., and R. L. Gall, 1989: Structure and dynamics of the Arizona monsoon boundary. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1423-1438.

Amador, J. A., V. O. Magaña, and J. B. Perez , 2000. The Low Level Jet and Convective Activity in the Caribbean. IN: Proceedings of 24th AMS Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, 114-115, 29 May to 2 June 2000.

Arritt, R. W., D. C. Goering, and C. J. Anderson, R. W., 2000: The North American monsoon system in the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 565-568.

Augustine, J. A. and F. Caracena, 1996: Lower-tropospheric precursors to nocturnal MCS development over the central United States. Wea. and Forecasting, 9, 116-135.

Avissar, R. and R.A. Pielke, 1989. A parameterization of heterogeneous land-surface for atmospheric numerical models and its impact on regional meteorology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 2113-2136.

Baden-Dagan, A., C. E. Dorman, M. A. Merrifield, and C. D. Winant, 1991: The lower atmosphere over the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 16877-16896.


Barlow, M., S. Nigam and E. H. Berbery, 1998: Evolution of the North American Monsoon System. J. Climate, 11, 2238-2257.

Barnett, T. P., L. Dumenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner and M. Latif, 1989: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 661-685.

Berbery, E. H., 2001: Mesoscale moisture analysis of the North American monsoon. J. Climate, 14, 121-137.

Bonner, W. D., 1968: Climatology of the low-level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 833-850.

Bonner, W. D., and J. Paegle, 1970: Diurnal variations in the boundary layer winds over the south- central United States in summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 735-744.

Boyle, J. S., 1998: Evaluation of the annual cycle of precipitation over the United States in GCMs:AMIP simulations. J. Climate, 11, 1041-1055.

Brenner, I. S., 1974: A surge of maritime tropical air-Gulf of California to the southwestern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 375-389.

Bryson, R. A., and W. P. Lowry, 1955: The synoptic climatology of the Arizona summer precipitation singularity. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 36, 329-339.


Carleton, A. M., 1986: Synoptic-dynamic character of "bursts" and "breaks" in the southwest U.S. summer precipitation singularity. J. Climatol., 6, 605-623.

Carleton, A. M., 1987: Summer circulation climate of the American Southwest, 1945-1984. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr., 77, 619-634.

Carleton, D. A., Carpenter, and P. J. Weser, 1990: Mechanisms of interannual variability of the Southwest United States summer rainfall maximum. J. Climate, 3, 999-1015.

Castro, C.L., T.B. McKee, and R.A. Pielke Sr., 2000a: The climatology and interannual variability of the North American monsoon as revealed by the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis.Preprints, 11th Symposium on Global Change Studies, 80th AMS Annual Meeting, Long Beach, CA, January 9-14, 2000, 168-171.

Castro, C.L., T.B. McKee, and R.A. Pielke, Sr. 2000b: The Relationship of the North American Monsoon to Tropical and North Pacific Sea Surface Tempertures as Revealed by Observational Analyses. Submitted to J. Climate.


Dhar, O. N., P. R. Rakhecha, and B. N. Mandal, 1980: Does the early or late onset of the monsoon provide any clue to the subsequent rainfall during the monsoon season? Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1069-1072.

Douglas, M. W., R. A. Maddox, K. Howard and S. Reyes, 1993: The Mexican Monsoon. J. Climate, 6, 1665-1677.

Douglas, M. W., 1993: Current research into the monsoon. Sonorensis, Arizona Sonora Desert Museum Newsletter, 13, Nums. 3, 10-11 [Available from the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, 2021 N. Kinney Rd., Tucson, AZ, 85743]

Douglas, M. W, A. Valdez-Manzanilla, and R. García Cueto, 1998: Diurnal variations and horizontal extent of the low-level jet over the northern Gulf of California. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2017-2025.

Douglas, A. V., D. Cayan and J. Namias, 1982: Large scale changes in North Pacific and North American weather patterns in recent decades. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1851-1862.

Douglas, A. V., R. Blackmon, and P.J. Englehart, 1986: Mesoscale convective complexes in extreme Western Mexico: A regional response to broadscale drought. Proc. Tenth Ann. Climate Diagnostics Workshop, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 129-140.

Douglas, A. V., 1988: Factors influencing summer temperatures and precipitation in the Southwest. Proc. Twelth Ann. Climate Diagnostics Workshop, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, 266-275.

Douglas, A. V., and P.J. Englehart, 1996: An analysis of the starting date for the summer monsoon in Western Mexico and Southeast Arizona. Proc. Twentieth Ann. Climate Diagnostics Workshop, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA 207-211.

Douglas, A. V., and P. J. Englehart, 1997: Diagnostic studies of factors influencing variability in the Mexican Monsoon. Proceedings of the Twenty-first Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, 296-299.

Douglas, A. V., and P.J. Englehart, 1998: Diagnostic Study of the Mexican Drought of 1997-98. Proc. Twenty-second Ann. Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 26-29.


Eastman, J.L., M.B. Coughenour, and R.A. Pielke, 2000: The effects of CO2 and landscape change using a coupled plant and meteorological model. Submitted to Global Change Biology.

Enfield, D. B., A.M. Mestas-Nunez and P.J. Trimble , 2001: The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Englehart, P.J. and A.V. Douglas, 2001: Eastern North Pacific Tropical Storms and the Rainfall Climatology of Western Mexico. International Journal of Climatology, Final revised copy accepted for publication Dec. 6, 2000, 26pp., 8 figures. including comparisons with precipitation totals. JCAM, 24, 350-362.


Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S., L.V.Stenchikov,M.J.Suarez,L.L.Takacs,1997: A finite-difference GCM dynamical core with a variable resolution stretched-grid, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2943-2968.

Fox-Rabinovitz, L.L. Takacs, R.C. Govindaraju, and M.J. Suarez, 2001a: A Variable Resolution Stretched Grid GCM: Regional Climate Simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.

Fox-Rabinovitz, 2001b: Regional climate simulation of the anomalous U.S. summer events using a variable-resolution stretched-grid GCM. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

Fritsch, J.M., and R.A. Maddox, 1981: Convectively-driven mesoscale pressure systems aloft. Part I: Observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 9-19.

Fuller, R. D., and D. J. Stensrud, 2000: The relationship between easterly waves and surges over the Gulf of California during the North American monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.


Gates, W. L., 1992: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 1962-1970.

Gochis, D., W.J. Shuttleworth, R.A. Maddox and Z.-L. Yang, 2000: Quantification of error in a pseudo regional climate simulation of the North American Monsoon, Southwest Weather Symposium, Tucson, Arizona, September 2000, x.1-x.5.

Gochis, D., W.J. Shuttleworth and Z.-L. Yang, 2001: Sensitivity of the modelled North American Monsoon regional climate to convective parameterization. Submitted to Mon. Wea. Rev.

Graham, N. E., T. P. Barnett, R. Wilde, M. Ponater, and S. Schubert, 1994: On the role of tropical and midlatitude SSTs in forcing interannual to interdecadal variability in the winter Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 7, 1416-1441.

Grell, G.A. 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 764-787.

Grell, G.A., J. Dudhia, and D.R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-380+STR, 138 pp.

Gutzler, D. S., 2000: Covariability of spring snowpack and summer rainfall across the Southwest United States. J. Climate, 13, 4018-4027.

Gutzler, D. S., and J. W. Preston, 1997: Evidence for a relationship between spring snow cover in North America and summer rainfall in New Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2207-2210.


Hahmann, A. N., and R. E. Dickinson, 2001: A fine-mesh land approach for general circulation models and its impact on regional climate. J. Climate, in Press.

Hales, J. E., Jr., 1972: Surges of maritime tropical air northward over the Gulf of California. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 298-306.

Hales, J. E., Jr., 1974: Southwestern United States summer monsoon source--Gulf of Mexico or Pacific Ocean? J. Appl. Meteor., 13, 331-342.

Hardiker, V., 1997: A global numerical weather prediction model with variable resolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 349-360.

Harman, J. R., 1991: Synoptic Climatology of the Westerlies: Process and Patterns. Association of American Geographers. 80 pp.

Harrington, J. A., Jr., R. S. Cerveny, and R. Balling, Jr., 1992: Impact of the Southern Oscillation on the North American Southwest monsoon. Physical Geography, 13(4), 318-330.

Helfand, H. M. and S. D. Schubert, 1995: Climatology of the Great Plains low-level jet and its contribution to the continental moisture budget of the United States. J. Climate, 8, 784-806.

Hereford, R. and R. Webb, 1992: Historical variations of warm-season rainfall, southern Colorado Plateau, southwestern U.S.A. Climate Change, 22, 239-256.

Higgins, R. W., J. E. Janowiak and Y. Yao, 1996: A gridded hourly precipitation data base for the United States (1963-1993). NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 1, 47 pp.

Higgins, R. W., Y. Yao, E. S. Yarosh, J. E. Janowiak and K. C. Mo, 1997a: Influence of the Great Plains low-level jet on summertime precipitation and moisture transport over the central United States. J. Climate., 10, 481-507.

Higgins, R. W., Y. Yao, and X. Wang, 1997b: Influence of the North American Monsoon System on the United States summer precipitation regime. J. Climate, 10, 2600-2622.

Higgins, R. W., K. C. Mo and Y. Yao, 1998: Interannual variability of the United States summer precipitation regime with emphasis on the southwestern monsoon. J. Climate, 11, 2582-2606.

Higgins, R. W., Y. Chen and A. Douglas, 1999: Interannual variability of the North American warm season precipitation regime. J. Climate, 12, 653-680.

Higgins, R. W., and W. Shi, 2000: Dominant factors responsible for interannual variability of the Summer monsoon in the southwestern United States. J. Climate, 13, 759-776.

Higgins, R. W., W. Shi and E. Yarosh, 2000: Improved United States Precipitation Quality Control System and Analysis. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS No. 7, 40 pp.

Higgins, R. W., and W. Shi, 2001: Intercomparison of the Principal Modes of Interannual and Intraseasonal Variability of the North American Monsoon System. J. Climate, 14, 403- 417.

Huang, Z., and C. A. Lai, 1998: Multidecadal variability on the southwestern United States monsoon precipitation in the past century. Proceedings of the 9th Conference on the Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, pp. 159-166 [Available from American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA,02108-3693]



Janjic, Z.I., 1994: The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 927-945.

Johnson, A. M., 1976: The climate of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Climates of Central and South America, World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 12, W. Schwerdtfeger and H. E. Landsberg, Eds., Elsevier, 147-218.


Kalnay, E., and co-authors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471.

Kain, J.S. and M. Fritsch, 1990: A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (23), 2784-2802.

Kayano, M. T., and V. E. Kousky, 1999: Intraseasonal (30-60 day) variability in the global tropics: principal modes and their evolution. Tellus, 51A, 373-386.

Keyser, D.A., and D.R. Johnson, 1984: Effects of diabatic heating on the ageostrophic circulation of an upper tropospheric jet streak. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1709-1724.

Kiladis, G. N., and H. Van Loon, 1988: The Southern Oscillation. Part VII: Meteorological anomalies over the Indian and Pacific sectors associated with extremes of the oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 120-136.

Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez, 1992: Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2697-2715.


Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific / North American sector. Science, 266, 634-637.

Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9, 2407-2423.

Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott, 1990: Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 111-127.

Liebmann, B., H. Hendon and J. Glick, 1994: The relationship between tropical cyclones of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 72, 401-411.

Lu, L., R.A. Pielke, G.E. Liston, W.J. Parton, D. Ojima, and M. Hartman, 2000: Implementation of a two-way interactive atmospheric and ecological model and its application to the central United States. J. Climate, accepted with revisions.


Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1971: Detection of a 40-50 day oscillation in the zonal wind in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 702-708.

Madden, R. A., and, P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40-50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109-1123.

Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40-50 day tropical oscillation -A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814-837.

Maddox, R.A., 1980: Mesoscale convective complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1374-1387.

Magaña, V., J. A. Amador, and S. Medina 1999: The Midsummer Drought over Mexico and Central America. J. Climate, 12, 1577-1588.

Maloney, E. D. and D. L. Hartmann, 2000a: The Madden-Julian Oscillation, barotropic dynamics, and North Pacific tropical cyclone formation. Part I: Observations. Submitted to J. Atmos. Sci.

Maloney, E. D. and D. L. Hartmann, 2000b: The Madden-Julian Oscillation, barotropic dynamics, and North Pacific tropical cyclone formation. Part II: Stochastic barotropic modeling. Submitted to J. Atmos. Sci.

McGregor, J. L., and J. J. Katzfey, 1998: Simulating typhoon recurvature with a variable resolution conformal-cubic model. In Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling, Report No.28 (ed. H.Ritchie), WMO/TD-No.942, 3.19-3.20.

Mesinger, 1998: Comparison of quantitative precipitation forecasts by the 48- and by the 29-km Eta model: An update and possible implications. Preprints, 12th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J22-23.

Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber, 1994: Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Climate Dyn., 9, 287-302.

Mitchell, M. J., R. A. Arritt, and K. Labas, 1995: A climatology of the warm season Great Plains low- level jet using wind profiler observations. Wea. and Forecasting, 10, 576-591.

Mo, K. C., and J. N. Paegle, 2000: Influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on the precipitation regimes over the Southwest United States. J. Climate, 13, 3588-3598.

Mock, C. J. 1996: Climatic controls and spatial variations of precipitation in the western United States. J. Climate, 9, 1111-1125.


Namias, J., 1959: Recent seasonal interactions between North Pacific waters and the overlying atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 631-646.

Namias, J., X. Yuan, and D. R. Cayan, 1988: Persistence of North Pacific sea surface temperature and atmospheric flow patterns. J. Climate, 1, 682-703.

Ninomiya, K., 1971a: Dynamical analysis of outflow from tornado-producing thunderstorms as revealed by ATS III pictures. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 275-294. ,

Ninomiya, K., 1971b: Mesoscale modification of synoptic situations from thunderstorm development as revealed by ATS III and aerological data. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 1103-1121.


Okabe, I. T., 1995: The North American Monsoon. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, 146 pp.


Paegle, J., 1989: A variable resolution global model based upon Fourier and finite element representation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 583-606.

Parker, S. S., J. T. Hawes, S. J. Colucci and B. P. Hayden, 1989: Climatology of 500 mb cyclones and anticyclones, 1950-1985. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 558-570.

Perkey, D.J., and R.A. Maddox, 1985: A numerical investigation of a mesoscale convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 553-566.

Pielke, R.A., G.E. Liston, J.L. Eastman, L. Lu, and M. Coughenour, 1999: Seasonal weather prediction as an initial value problem. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19463-19479.



Ramage, C. S., 1971: Monsoon Meteorology. Academic Press, 391 pp. Rasmusson, E. M., 1966: Atmospheric water vapor transport and the hydrology of North America. Report No. A-1, Planetary Circulations Project, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 pp.

Ramage, C. S., 1967: Atmospheric water vapor transport and the water balance of North America: Part I. Characteristics of the water vapor flux field. Mon. Wea. Rev., 95, 403-426.

Ramage, C. S., 1968: Atmospheric water vapor transport and the water balance of North America: Part II. Large-scale water balance investigations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 720-734.

Rowson, D. R., and S. J. Colucci, 1992: Synoptic climatology of thermal low-pressure systems over South-Western North America. J. Climatol., 12, 529-545.


Schmitz, J. T., and S. Mullen, 1996: Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American Monsoon as depicted by ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9, 1621-1634.

Sellers, W. D., and R. H. Hill, 1974: Arizona Climate, 1931-1972. The University of Arizona Press, 616 pp.

Seth, A., F. Giorgi, and R. E. Dickinson, 1994: Simulating fluxes from heterogeneous land surfaces: Explicit subgrid method employing the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18,651-18,667.

Slingo, J., and Coauthors, 1995: Intraseasonal oscillations in 15 atmospheric general circulation models: Results from an AMIP diagnostic subproject. World Climate Research Program Tech. Memo. 88, 28 pp. [Available from the WMO, Case Postale No.2300, 1211,Geneva, Switzerland].

Small, E. E., 2001: The influence of soil moisture anomalies on variability of the North American monsoon system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 139-142.

Stensrud, D. J., R. L. Gall, S. L. Mullen and K. W. Howard, 1995: Model Climatology of the Mexican Monsoon. J. Climate, 8, 1775-1794.

Stensrud, D. J., 1996: Effects of a persistent, midlatitude mesoscale region of convection on the large-scale environment during the warm season. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3503-3527.

Stensrud, D. J., D. J., R. L. Gall, and M. K. Nordquist, 1997: Surges over the Gulf of California during the Mexican Monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 417-437.

Swanson, R. T., Jr., 1998: Regional-scale model climatology of the North American monsoon system. Doctoral Thesis, The University of Utah, 159 pp.


Tang., M. And E. R. Reiter, 1984: Plateau monsoons of the Northern Hemisphere: A comparison between North America and Tibet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 617-637.

Ting, M. and H. Wang, 1997: Summertime U.S. precipitation variability and its relation to Pacific sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 10, 1853-1873.

Trenberth, K.E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn., 9, 303-319.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. G. Olson, 1988: Evaluation of the NMC Global Analyses: 1979-1987. NCAR Technical Note / TN-299+STR, 82 pp.



Vernekar, A. D., J. Zhou, and J. Shukla, 1995: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. J. Climate, 8, 248-266.

Vicente, G. A, R. A. Scofield, and W. P. Menzel, 1998: The operational GOES infrared rainfall estimation technique. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 1983 - 1998.


Wallace, J. M., 1975: Diurnal variations in precipitation and thunderstorm frequency over the conterminous United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 406-419.

Webster, P. J., 1987: The elementary monsoon. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 3-32.

Webster, P. J., and S. Yang, 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118, 877-926.

Whittaker, L. M. and L. H. Horn, 1981: Geographical and seasonal distribution of North American cyclogenesis, 1958-1977. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 2312-2322.

Wolf, B.J., and D.R. Johnson, 1995a: The mesoscale forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by a simulated convective system. Part I: Mass circulation and ageostrophic processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1059-1087.

Wolf, B.J., and D.R. Johnson, 1995b: The mesoscale forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by a simulated convective system. Part II: Kinetic energy and resolution analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1088-1111.


Xie, P. and P. A. Arkin, 1996: Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model predictions. J. Climate, 9, 840-858.

Xie, P. and P. A. Arkin, 1998: Global monthly precipitation estimates from satellite-observed Outgoing Longwave Radiation. J. Climate, 11, 137-164.


Yang, S., K. M. Lau, and M. Sankar-Rao, 1996: Precursory signals associated with the interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 9, 949-969.

Yang, Z.-L., D. Gochis, and W.J. Shuttleworth, 2001: Evaluation of the simulations of the North American monsoon in the NCAR CCM3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(7), 1211-1214.

Yang, Z.-L., D. Gochis, W.J. Shuttleworth and G.-Y. Niu, 2001: The impact of sea surface temperature on the North American monsoon: A GCM study, Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Yasunari, T., 1990: Impact of the Indian monsoon on the coupled atmosphere / ocean system in the tropical Pacific. Meteorol. and Atmos. Phys., 44, 29-41.

Yasunari, T., A. Kitoh and T. Tokioka, 1991: Local and remote responses to excessive snow mass over Eurasia appearing in the northern spring and summer climate - A study with the MRI-GCM. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 69, 473-487.

Yasunari, T., and Y. Seki, 1992: Role of the Asian monsoon on the interannual variability of the global climate system. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 70, 177-189.


Zehnder, J. A., D. Powell, and D. Ropp, 1999: The interaction of easterly waves, orography and the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the genesis of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1566-1585.

Zhang, D.-L., and R. Harvey, 1995: Enhancement of extratropical cyclogenesis by a mesoscale convective system. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1107-1127.